background
 

education

Tulip timetable

 

1000 AD
Record show that tulips were in cultivation in Turkey as early as this.

1100
Tulips are used in the initials of an Italian bible.

12th century
Omarr Khayam writes a poem about tulips.

13th century
The poet, Rumi, sings the praises of tulips in many songs.

1520-1566
The 'Tulip Era' takes place in Turkey under Suleiman II.

1557
First drawing of a tulip in western Europe.

1561
First book in which a tulip is portrayed (C. Gesner).

1568
First portrayal of a tulip in a Dutch book. (R. Dodoens' 'Cruydtboeck' (Herbal).

1578
First tulip appears in England.

1581
Matthias de l' Obel describes 41 varieties of tulips in his 'Cruydtboeck'.

1593
Carolus Clusius plants the first tulip in the Botanical Garden in Leiden, the Netherlands.

1594
The first tulips bloom in the Netherlands.

1598
The first tulip appears in France.

1600-1650
The tulip is an exclusive garden plant. It is planted in strategic places in the garden.

1600
Establishment of the first cultivation operations south of Haarlem, especially along the Wagenweg and the Kleine Houtweg. These absolute monopolies would hold onto their positions for about 150 years.

1612
Emanuel Swerts publishes the first trade catalogue and includes tulips in it.

1610-1637
The development of a lively trade in tulip bulbs results in a wild speculation in tulips. It was especially during 1623 and 1637 that prices rose steeply. An example: 'Semper Augustus' cost 1200 florins per bulb in 1624; in 1625 it cost 3000 florins; in 1633 it cost 5000 florins; and in 1637, 3 bulbs cost 30.000 florins. In comparison, a house along a canal in Amsterdam cost 10.000 florins in those days. This period may receive a lot of attention. Since that time there has never been such a speculation in the Netherlands.

1630
The first parrot tulip is described.

1650
The firm of Voorhelm is established in Haarlem.

1651
A record of tulips written by F. Morin appears in Paris.

1661
The Elector from Brandenburg records 126 different tulips in an inventory.

1700-1730
Tulipmania in Turkey. Mohammed Lalizari is a great tulip enthusiast. During this time he imports thousands of bulbs to Turkey from the Netherlands.

18th century
The Tulip becomes less important than the hyacinth. Around 1730 there is somewhat of a speculation in hyacinths.

1730-1740
The Margrave van Baden-Durlack publishes a catalogue which includes the statement that he has bought bulbs from 17 Dutch companies, 15 of them in Haarlem.

1734
Dialogue of Waermondt and Gaergoedt about the tulip speculation is published again, this time as a result of a threatening speculation in hyacinths.

1750
The introduction of the tulip called 'Keizerskroon' (still cultivated on 2.3 ha of land in the Netherlands).

19th century
Cultivation is expanded, at first in the direction of Overveen and Bloemendaal, and then, in the second half of the nineteenth century, toward Hillegom, Lisse and Noordwijk. Tulips were included in the group called 'bijgoed' (miscellaneous kinds of bulbs and tubers). Only hyacinths were listed under the term 'bollen' (bulbs).

1815
Introduction of the tulip variety 'Couleur Cardinal' [still cultivated today on 23 hectares in the Netherlands; it has also produced a number of mutants such as 'Arma' (44 ha) and 'Prinses Irene' (72 ha)].

1849
J.B. van der Schoot is the first 'bollenreiziger' (travelling bulb salesman) to go to the United States. Bulbs were sold to the U.S. from Holland as early as the 18th century.

1860
Introduction of the fragrant tulip 'Prins van Oostenrijk' and the double early tulip, 'Murillo'.

1872
The discovery of T. greigii takes place via P.L. Graeber. Bulbs are sent to C.G. van Tubergen who ensures that the tulips are introduced.

1877
E.A. Regal described Tulips kaufmanniana.

1889
Introduction of Darwin tulips. Introduction of 'Bartigon' in 1898. These tulips would turn out to be the most commonly cultivated tulips.

1914-1915
First 'Classified List of Tulip Names'. Included in how the flowers were arranged were: flowering period, shape and the degree of 'bloembreking' (the striping and splashing of colours within the flower).

1928
Establishment of the Hortus Bulborum Limmen.

1943
First professional publication about viruses which affect tulips, complete with clinical pictures.

1943
As a result of crossing, D.W.Lefeber develops enormous red tulips which are known as Darwin Hybrids. The most famous one is 'Apeldoorn'.

1960
A trip by carriage from Turkey to the Netherlands to commemorate the existence of tulips in western Europe for 400 years.

1977
Introduction of 'ice tulips' tulips held in sustained coolness to delay forcing beyond normal time period to extend the availability of cut tulip flowers into 'down months' when they were previously not available.